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Daz69

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Daz69 last won the day on October 31

Daz69 had the most liked content!

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About Daz69

  • Rank
    Senior member
  • Birthday July 5

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    Dead for tax purposes...
  • Interests
    Training injured....
  • Steroid use
    Natural

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  1. So consistently of good character then...
  2. Bodybuilder..??? Have you seen the size of the skinny runt..!!
  3. Hgh testing

    Pay private at PathLab... What's the appeal of hGH..? On its own, there is very little evidence for hypertrophy...
  4. Customes in NZ

    Why not just eat less, and throw in some cardio..?
  5. Help required - Police PAT

    Its assumed a 21 year old recruit would be stronger and fitter than someone in their late 50's, also males generally perform better than females due to greater muscle mass and differing hormone profile.. Police have to keep within certain standards, but obviously as you age your personal best will not be that when younger.. The PCT taken every 2 years must be passed otherwise Police are removed from frontline duties until they do pass.. Anyone failing consistently must be seriously overweight, and/or physically fucking useless and should consider if Police is the profession for them..
  6. joint pain

    How do you know curcumin was responsible and it didn't just heal on its own.. I've looked into bioavailability of curcumin and its very low to almost negligible, piperidine assists absorption but its still crap..
  7. joint pain

    Bioavailability is negligible..
  8. Help required - Police PAT

    The Police PAT test is pretty easy for most recruits, and so it should be, it's meant to weed out those not suitable for frontline Policing.. The fact you are finding it difficult might just tell you something..!!
  9. Whilst the pathway from testosterone and androstenedione use cyp19a1 (aromatase), to synthesise estrone and estradiol, there is a reverse pathway between estrone and estradiol that uses 17-beta HSD.. Google..
  10. Help required - Police PAT

    The Police PAT run is easily completed by most participants, have you considered you just might not be up to it physically.? Why anyone would contemplate a career in Police today is beyond me, they are massively under resourced, most rural stations work solo shifts with no backup.. Eastern Coromandel frequently has one officer covering from Port Jackson to Waihi most Friday and Saturday nights, backup is in Thames over an hour away, or Paeroa 1.5 hours away.. For a population of about 18,000 people... Not exactly getting value for taxes paid.. Welcome to modern Policing..!!
  11. Aromatase is aromatase, any change and it ceases to be the same molecule, did you mean aromatization in myocytes as opposed to adipose tissue..? Regards estrogen metabolites, there are those that trigger a positive effect as opposed to those that trigger negative effect, such as creating R.O.S that damage tissue and disrupt cellular processes..
  12. Tbol TRT

    While it will help protect your liver, the active component in Milk Thistle effectively reduces nuclear androgen receptor levels and down-regulates several androgen-regulated genes primarily by inhibiting the transactivation activity of the AR, and can also inhibit nuclear localisation of the androgen receptor. Milk Thistle will also have an inhibitory effect on the insulin-like growth factor receptor-mediated signaling pathway. All in all, there seems to be a reasonable expectation that this stuff is anti-anabolic.. A much better alternative is Prunella Vulgaris, which has been shown to protect liver cells and activate the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, thereby allowing it to work as an anti-oestrogen as well. As long as you're going to take oral steroids, you may as well take a liver protector that isn't going to hinder your gains.
  13. Tbol TRT

    Read my earlier post on milk thistle and inhibition of IGF-1 signalling pathways.. Maybe taper up the dose of testosterone (175mg, 200mg, 225mg, 250mg) in line with increasing tbol each week: 10mg, 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 50mg.. Rather than jumping straight up 400mg in one week..
  14. Intermittent Fasting and Autophagy When you lose body fat, the body literally eats itself, a process called autophagy. By definition and function, autophagy destroys tissue, making it purely catabolic. As damaged and unused material builds up within a cell, it gets sick and can die. So it needs to get cleaned up: autophagy to the rescue. Several authors give an excellent review of the basics—which aren’t so basic [1]. Relevant to our discussion there are two types, macroautophagy (Macro) and chaperon mediated autophagy (CMA). (There is a third type, microautophagy, but it’s poorly studied and, therefore, poorly understood [2,3].) To be brief, autophagy is a reaction to either starvation or internal cellular damage; fasting triggers both on different time scales. Macro is fast-acting and short-lived whereas CMA takes a little time to kick in. Each type cleans detritus from the innards of the cells, removing the junk for healthier cell function or recycling components for tissue repair when you’re starving—literally. Who Cares? Autophagy, keeps cells healthy by keeping them cleaned out. Nowhere is this clearer than in skeletal muscle tissue. When autophagy is chronically suppressed (or knocked-out), chunks of non-functional protein accumulate, mitochondria (the cell’s power plant) develop bad mutations, and oxidative stress runs rampant. If autophagy fails, these conditions cause muscle fiber breakdown [4]—your muscles fall apart from the inside out and there’s really not much you can do about it. Also, in times of nutritional deficit, like starvation, fasting or even rapid energy depletion such as happens with sustained exhaustive activity like CrossFit, autophagy actually helps to slow and protect against muscle loss [5, 6]. Take note: autophagy is also part of the destructive process. In most tissues, Macro activates within a few hours of nutrient deprivation and only lasts a few hours. In fast-twitch muscle, however, the process can just keep going [7]. When this happens, the body is recycling chunks of protein in the muscle for use in repairing larger structures as they suffer damage [5, 6]. Autophagy helps preserve lean tissue by destroying fast-twitch muscle for spare parts. When you withhold food for a few hours or more, your muscles become a salvage yard. Obviously, muscular autophagy can only sustain muscle mass for so long until it runs out of junk material and starts destroying the entire muscle fiber. Autophagy is one of the main pathways of skeletal muscle breakdown [28]. Skeletal muscle is not the only tissue whose cells get filled with junk and could use a bit of spring cleaning from time to time. The cells of the nervous system, particularly brain neurons, become healthier, more robust and able to form new connections better, a process called neuroplasticity [8-10], when autophagy is routinely stimulated. Autophagy, literally, makes you smarter. There’s also mounting evidence that the benefits of calorie restriction on muscle quality later in life and the benefits of exercise depend on properly activated autophagic pathways [31-33]. Autophagy is pretty damn important for skeletal muscle health, but so is how we regulate it. Triggering the Hunger We can trigger the first type of autophagy, Macro, with simple fasting. As mentioned before, fasting triggers Macro within a few hours. Key point: macroautophagy is transient in nearly all tissues except fast twitch muscle [7, 11]. The body stops autophagic tissue destruction after only a few hours of initiation except in fast-twitch muscle. Bursts of Macro never last very long and need to be continually re-stimulated by eating, then fasting. CMA, the other type of interesting autophagy, isn’t triggered directly by starvation. It’s regulated by ketone build up [1, 12]. If you’re in ketogenesis, autophagy is keeping your cells healthy and happy by cleaning out the gunk. Any type of ketogenic diet – Anabolic Diet, Atkins Prep Phase, Carb Nite, Carb Back-Loading, South Beach Induction Phase, various IF protocols, low-carb Paleo plans – all activate the chaperon mediated autophagy. Spiking free fatty acid levels—which can be done with MCT or coconut oil—also cause a strong increase in ketone production [23-25]. Don’t be ravenous Autophagy is pure catabolism. We don’t want to it run unchecked. It’s not that tough and we can actually throttle autophagy or shut it off. mTOR connects almost every muscular growth and degradation process. In this case, mTOR activation isn’t a direct regulator of autophagy, but it does, in most instances correlate with autophagy activation [13-15]. If mTOR is being stimulated, Macro activity is low; if not, Macro is high. Macro is always off when mTOR is getting a strong growth signal. This isn’t the same as mTOR being shut-off which allows for degradation by autophagy [39-42]. It only means that unless a nutrient or system directly activates mTOR then Macro can function. For instance, mTOR can allow growth at night, but Macro can still clean cells. This is why the 12 hour window of fasting is the critical period—at this point, Processes can inhibit the mTOR pathway and allow Macro to destroy our muscles. Chaperon mediated autophagy (CMA) is different. Ketone-activated autophagy (CMA) functions independent of mTOR activation [34-38]. In other words, we can keep CMA going without sacrificing muscle. The nice thing here is that with energy influx (i.e. we eat something), we get the health benefits of autophagy and avoid the signals that trigger tissue breakdown. We also gain protection from skeletal muscle breakdown through ketone buildup [26]. Shut It Down Sometimes, we absolutely want to shut autophagy down to the fullest extent possible in fast twitch muscle, like after resistance training. Autophagy is suppressed during resistance training, but the buildup of reactive oxygen species (ROS, also known as free radicals), if left too long, triggers a strong autophagic response that can tear down muscle [16, 17]. The ROS buildup is hormetic: a little bit triggers growth factors, too much triggers destruction [18]. We can combat this destruction on several fronts. Amino acids can be highly suppressive to autophagy and in muscle, it requires both leucine and phenylalanine to shut autophagy down completely [2]. It turns out that autophagy is the only catabolic trigger that we can shut off with nutrients after resistance training [19]. What About IF? IF now claims magical autophagic properties, playing on the ignorance of the health and fitness community, and even some of the less informed experts. IF does trigger autophagy [12], but, none of the them from LeanGains to Eat-Stop-Eat do so optimally and anything recommending 24 hour fasts or longer is triggering catabolic processes specifically in fast-twitch muscle fiber. You may not notice this effect immediately, or at all, if you carry only a minimum of muscle, but if you’re pushing the envelope or shooting for maximum hypertrophy, fasting is not doing you any favors. Macroautophagy stays on for 24 hours or longer only in fast-twitch muscle if we don’t eat. Autophagy stimulated by prolonged fasting is destructive; it’s passed the point of beneficial. Prolonged fasting triggers autophagy to deteriorate muscle tissue faster than severing the nerve to the muscle [29, 30]. Unacceptable after all the hard work we put into building it. The only thing IF does for autophagy is to drive it into destructive ranges for fast-twitch muscle. I know that people say these things work, but they’re usually sitting at 22% body fat or higher and dropping to 16% or so for men. That’s not tough and it’s established that body fat levels dictate muscle loss during weight loss-via calorie reduction—the fatter you are, the less muscle you’ll lose [20, 21]. And as was shown previously in this series, IF protocols perform identically to standard calorie reduction when it comes to body composition changes [22]. Ideal Autophagy for Muscle Growth The ideal way to manipulate autophagy would be to allow fasts long enough to trigger macroautophagy without down-regulating the mTOR pathway, which can occur within 12 hours of fasting. At this point, eat something. If we spike free fatty-acid levels, or keeps them sustained, then the body continues producing ketones, which are the sole regulator of chaperon-mediated autophagy. This procedure has several cerebral benefits and not only will it avoid the atrophy of fast twitch muscle, but ketones protect muscle tissue from degradation. Then, when it comes time to train, your sympathetic nervous system—the one that controls fight-or-flight response, such as adrenaline —is primed for action with bigger adrenaline pulses, faster response and stronger action. The heightened burst of adrenaline also fights proteolysis [27], or muscle tissue breakdown. This can only occur if insulin levels have been kept low all day and you’ve been eating something—otherwise, the long-lived fast can trigger adrenaline release before the workout and destroy the advantage. At this point in the day, we’ve optimized performance, preserved muscle mass and allowed beneficial autophagy to run its course. Train. After the session, spark growth as rapidly and potently as possible by spiking insulin levels, providing raw materials for growth and shutting down the one catabolic component we have control over: destructive autophagy. Once the frenzy is over, it’s time for bed where we’ve made sure our food choice cleared as quickly as possible to allow macroautophagy to work through the night. IF and Nutrition With no real challengers, IF has emerged as a champion, and in its own right, IF is a champion of diet—against average diets. It is a little better, if only because it triggers a therapeutic clean-up process at the cellular level and for most people it’s easy. The research consistently shows that the only thing IF brings to the table for athletes is detriment. IF shuts off the very anabolic processes on which we rely for improving performance. IF manages to drive beneficial metabolic processes into destructive cellular chaos. In the research, IF consistently demonstrates that is no better than an average for fat loss or muscle gain and it decreases athletic performance.. 1. Finn PF, Dice JF. Proteolytic and lipolytic responses to starvation. Nutrition. 2006 Jul-Aug;22(7-:830-44. Review. 2. Dice JF. Lysosomal pathways of protein degradation. Georgetown, TX: Landes Bioscience; 2000. 3. Roberts P, Moshitch-Moshkovitz S, Kvam E, O’Toole E, Winey M, Goldfarb DS. Piecemeal microautophagy of nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:129–41. 4. Raben N, Hill V, Shea L, Takikita S, Baum R, Mizushima N, Ralston E, Plotz P. Suppression of autophagy in skeletal muscle uncovers the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and their potential role in muscle damage in Pompe disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3897–3908. 5. Moscat J, Diaz-Meco MT. Feedback on fat: p62-mTORC1-autophagy connections. Cell. 2011 Nov 11;147(4):724-7. Review. 6. Masiero E, Agatea L, Mammucari C, Blaauw B, Loro E, Komatsu M, Metzger D, Reggiani C, Schiaffino S, Sandri M. Autophagy is required to maintain muscle mass. Cell Metab. 2009 Dec;10(6):507-15. 7. Mizushima N, Yamamoto A, Matsui M, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y. In vivo analysis of autophagy in response to nutrient starvation using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent autophagosome marker. Mol Biol Cell 2004;15:1101–11. 8. Alirezaei M, Kemball CC, Flynn CT, Wood MR, Whitton JL, Kiosses WB. Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Autophagy. 2010 Aug;6(6):702-10. 9. Boland B, Kumar A, Lee S, Platt FM, Wegiel J, Yu WH, Nixon RA. Autophagy induction and autophagosome clearance in neurons: relationship to autophagic pathology in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci. 2008 Jul 2;227):6926-37. 10. Young JE, Martinez RA, La Spada AR. Nutrient deprivation induces neuronal autophagy and implicates reduced insulin signaling in neuroprotective autophagy activation. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jan 23;284(4):2363-73. 11. Fry MJ, Waterfield MD. Structure and function of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase: a potential second messenger system involved in growth control. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1993;340:337– 44. 12. Cahová M, Da?ková H, Pálení?ková E, Papá?ková Z, Kazdová L. The autophagy-lysosomal pathway is involved in TAG degradation in the liver: the effect of high-sucrose and high-fat diet. Folia Biol (Praha). 2010;56(4):173-82. 13. Jung CH, Ro SH, Cao J, Otto NM, Kim DH. mTOR regulation of autophagy. FEBS Lett. 2010 Apr 2;584(7):1287-95. Review. 14. Kim J, Kundu M, Viollet B, Guan KL. AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1. Nat Cell Biol. 2011 Feb;13(2):132-41. 15. Jung CH, Jun CB, Ro SH, Kim YM, Otto NM, Cao J, Kundu M, Kim DH. ULK-Atg13-FIP200 complexes mediate mTOR signaling to the autophagy machinery. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Apr;20(7):1992-2003. 16. Barbieri E, Sestili P. Reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle signaling. J Signal Transduct. 2012;2012:982794. 17. Cubrilo D, Djordjevic D, Zivkovic V, Djuric D, Blagojevic D, Spasic M, Jakovljevic V. Oxidative stress and nitrite dynamics under maximal load in elite athletes: relation to sport type. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011 Sep;355(1-2):273-9. 18. Ristow M, Zarse K. How increased oxidative stress promotes longevity and metabolic health: The concept of mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis). Exp Gerontol. 2010 Jun;45(6):410-8. Review. 19. Glynn EL, Fry CS, Drummond MJ, Dreyer HC, Dhanani S, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB. Muscle protein breakdown has a minor role in the protein anabolic response to essential amino acid and carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Aug;299(2):R533-40. 20. Argilés JM, López-Soriano J, Almendro V, Busquets S, López-Soriano FJ. Cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: a link with obesity? Med Res Rev. 2005 Jan;25(1):49-65. Review. 21. Dulloo AG, Jacquet J. The control of partitioning between protein and fat during human starvation: its internal determinants and biological significance. Br J Nutr. 1999 Nov;82(5):339-56. 22. Soeters MR, Lammers NM, Dubbelhuis PF, Ackermans M, Jonkers-Schuitema CF, Fliers E, Sauerwein HP, Aerts JM, Serlie MJ. Intermittent fasting does not affect whole-body glucose, lipid, or protein metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1244-51. 23. Beylot M. Regulation of in vivo ketogenesis: role of free fatty acids and control by epinephrine, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucagon. Diabetes Metab. 1996 Oct;22(5):299-304. Review. 24. Keller U, Lustenberger M, Müller-Brand J, Gerber PP, Stauffacher W. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1989 May;5(3):285-98. Review. 25. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA. Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004 Mar;70(3):243-51. Review. 26. Thompson JR, Wu G. The effect of ketone bodies on nitrogen metabolism in skeletal muscle. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;100: 209–16. 27. Kadowaki M, Kamata T, Noguchi T. Acute effect of epinephrine on muscle proteolysis in perfused rat hindquarters. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:E961–7. 28. Sandri M. Autophagy in Skeletal Muscle. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1411-6. 29. O’Leary MF, Hood DA. Effect of prior chronic contractile activity on mitochondrial function and apoptotic protein expression in denervated muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jul;105(1):114-20. 30. O’Leary MF, Hood DA. Denervation-induced oxidative stress and autophagy signaling in muscle. Autophagy. 2009 Feb;5(2):230-1. 31. Kim YA, Kim YS, Song W. Autophagic response to a single bout of moderate exercise in murine skeletal muscle. J Physiol Biochem. 2011 Dec 29. Epub ahead of print. 32. Ogura Y, Iemitsu M, Naito H, Kakigi R, Kakehashi C, Maeda S, Akema T. Single bout of running exercise changes LC3-II expression in rat cardiac muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Nov 4;414(4):756-60. 33. Wohlgemuth SE, Seo AY, Marzetti E, Lees HA, Leeuwenburgh C. Skeletal muscle autophagy and apoptosis during aging: effects of calorie restriction and life-long exercise. Exp Gerontol. 2010 Feb;45(2):138-48. 34. Zhao J, Brault JJ, Schild A, Goldberg AL. Coordinate activation of autophagy and the proteasome pathway by FoxO transcription factor. Autophagy. 2008 Apr;4(3):378-80. 35. Mammucari C, Milan G, Romanello V, Masiero E, Rudolf R, Del Piccolo P, Burden SJ, Di Lisi R, Sandri C, Zhao J, Goldberg AL, Schiaffino S, Sandri M. FoxO3 controls autophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo. Cell Metab. 2007 Dec;6(6):458-71. 36. Zhao J, Brault JJ, Schild A, Cao P, Sandri M, Schiaffino S, Lecker SH, Goldberg AL. FoxO3 coordinately activates protein degradation by the autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways in atrophying muscle cells. Cell Metab. 2007 Dec;6(6):472-83. 37. Mammucari C, Schiaffino S, Sandri M. Downstream of Akt: FoxO3 and mTOR in the regulation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Autophagy. 2008 May;4(4):524-6. 38. Tanida I, Wakabayashi M, Kanematsu T, Minematsu-Ikeguchi N, Sou YS, Hirata M, Ueno T, Kominami E. Lysosomal turnover of GABARAP-phospholipid conjugate is activated during differentiation of C2C12 cells to myotubes without inactivation of the mTor kinase-signaling pathway. Autophagy. 2006 Oct-Dec;2(4):264-71. 39. Dennis PB, Jaeschke A, Saitoh M, Fowler B, Kozma SC, Thomas G. Mammalian TOR: a homeostatic ATP sensor. Science 2001;294:1102–5. 40. Meijer AJ. Amino acids as regulators and components of nonproteinogenic pathways. J Nutr 2003;133:2057S– 62S. 41. Blommaart EF, Luiken JJ, Blommaart PJ, van Woerkom GM, Meijer AJ. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is inhibitory for autophagy in isolated rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 1995;270:2320–6. 42. van Sluijters DA, Dubbelhuis PF, Blommaart EF, Meijer AJ. Amino-acid– dependent signal transduction. Biochem J 2000;351:545–50. http://body.io/intermittent-fasting-...bWFpbC5jb20%3D
  15. Advice for coming off TRT

    I thought Clomiphene presented with side effects... You could start on 25mg EOD for a few weeks reducing to 12.5mg EOD, whilst monitoring bloods (LH, FSH, Testosterone)...
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